How science really works or why exoplanets were completely unknown before 1995, less than 25 years ago.
An explosion of our knowledge about the universe changed our view to the universe completely: Nearly 4000 extrasolar planets (1854 in dec. 2014) discovered in extremely short time, in less than 20 years!
Nearly 4000 exoplanets ( 3863 in oct. 2018)— planets orbiting other stars — have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered in 1995 with potentially enormous philosophical implications[**]. Without any exageration probably the biggest scientific discovery ever.
A first cosmic census estimates at least 50 billion (exo-)planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And this in contrast to the fact that just 20 years ago astronomers and phycisists told us we're the only planetary system in the whole universe. SETI 1995: "in fact many authorities felt our(s)" (...planetary system...) "might be unique".
200 years astronomers have searched in vain the night sky for planets around other stars...
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"No one would have predicted 10 years ago that we'd have any extrasolar planets. Even though we have now found more than 100 of them, these are still the early days in planet hunting." (planet hunter Geoffrey Marcy 2003)
"Astronomers have looked for planets around other stars for over 50 years, with little success. But in the mid-1990's that changed, and astronomers have been surprised ever since. " (http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/caryl/a10/lec21_2d.html)
Planets outside our solar system far out in the universe is the hottest topic of astronomers and astrophysics these days. On these pages you can read why they were detected and why they were detected so late, now only 20 years back ( in 1995 ). And now we have already nearly 2000 discoveries...
Further you can read why this disproves three of the main today used hypothesis in modern astrophysics and astronomy. Not by doubtfull and unprovable claims but by computer programs which are repeatable and verifiable by everyone. Data for these computer programs is from highly trustable federal instances (US and european) and accessible to everyone. If this would concern only astronomy and astrophysics one could say: 'if one or the other star gets classified wrong is of no concern to me'. No, the consequences out of these wrong hypothesis concern everyone, even more, human lives depend on and are endangered by these wrong hypothesis. Not to speak of the severe damage that the whole science experiences, starting by geology over biology over archaeology and and and....
The theories build around dark matter can be taken as disproven by now. Different researchers worldwide have found proves for this and at the same time strenghtening the here said. The XENON detector which should detect dark matter delivers only negative results. See also here. And here.
In retrospect in the year 2018 the following is a chronology of the acceptance by physics that all shining stars have planets orbiting them (In parethesis you'll find the year when it was written/added to this page):
But it seems it won't take long till the here written is fully accepted. Now you can already hear astronomers say: 'planets are no big deal! They are commonplace! And 40 or more percent of the stars must have planets!' Others speak already of 70-80%. Read again these pages and you will know it's exactly 100 percent. May be some wobble so faint that we can't measure it, but that changes nothing on the fact that all 'shining' stars have planets(2009).
Others tell in 2009 : "There could be one hundred billion Earth-like planets in our galaxy...". and Berkeley says in end of 2010: "Earth-Sized Alien Planets May Be Surprisingly Common" and "25% of Sun-like stars have Earth-like planets.. (and)...there could be even more Earth-size planets"(2010).
A first cosmic census estimates at least 50 billion planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And this in contrast to the fact that just 20 years ago astronomers and phycisists told us we're the only planetary system in the whole universe(2011).
Evidence from observations lead now in 2013 more and more researchers to the same conclusion: "Extrapolating from Kepler's currently ongoing observations and results from other detection techniques, it looks like practically all Sun-like stars have planets".(2013)
And you can already hear: 'Nobody knows how brown dwarfs form'. Which is only a very small step away from: 'Nobody knows how stars form'. If you follow todays literature which states: 'Brown dwarfs form like stars'(The Brown Dwarf — Exoplanet Connection, J. W. Mason,Springer 2008) this is already today a synonyme. Even clearer: " We have (currently) no definition of what a planet is". Which is nothing else than the negative expression of: "We have currently no definition what a star is" .
By scrutinizing the planets found so far astronomers more and more realize that many of the planets found have masses which classify them according to todays definition as stars, disproving thereby todays theories on stars (and proving everything written on these pages thereby). And much to the surprise of astronomers many are orbiting in the opposite direction to the rotation of their host star, thereby disproving one of the central hypotheses of todays astro-physics. Read more..
After 20 years now (!) these papers (A&A,Jan 2011) are first proves of the calculations and descriptions on this site: "The barycentric motion of exoplanet host stars: tests of solar spin-orbit coupling" or this pdf: "Does a Spin–Orbit Coupling Between the Sun and the Jovian Planets Govern the Solar Cycle?" (more under new facts and links) And everyday new findings prove the main statement of this site
In the end of the year 2018 now the main statement of this site is no more questioned by science, that all shining stars have planets orbiting them. Inversely this means that there must be countless dark stars, which would explain the biggest question of todays physics and astronomy: Where are the missing masses, what is dark matter? But to accept this, todays physic would have to admit that the actual astro-physics is completely wrong, assumes a totally wrong process of energy production in stars (atomic fusion, on which the whole astro-physics building is constructed). And it seems physics is not able or willing to do this. Because in this case the whole astro-physics building would collapse, Big Bang, classification of stars, supernovae and black holes included.
What a happy coincidence is it that just now a mission is planned which will be able to find for the first time dark (only visible in the infrared) stars! The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is sheduled to start in 2021 with a Ariane rocket.
Now since dark stars don't fit into the picture of 'atomic fusion stars' a new form of energy production for dark stars had to be found: "an unusual power source". These stars are "powered by the heat from Dark Matter annihilation, rather than by fusion". This is typical for this sort of physics, no one knows what dark matter is, of what it consists, what kind of laws apply, how it interacts (if it interacts at all), in essence absolutely nothing is known about dark matter, but its annihilation produces power. It is even known that "Although dark matter constitutes only ~< 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years"
Then there is the Parker Solar Probe, which started in Aug. 2018 to study the solar corona. Parker Solar Probe will get very close to the sun — within 6.16 million kilometers. The solar corona's outer boundary reaches about 8 million kilometers into space. These pages were the first to ask, how can a atomic fusion reactor deep within the sun heat the solar corona through a rather cold solar surface? The sun's surface has a temperature of just 6000 Kelvin, but the corona has a temperature of over 1 million Kelvin, which is till today a big mystery for physics. Parker shell now help to clarify some of the questions which were first raised on these pages. Read more here...
But there are a lot more open questions what concerns the sun. ESA too plans a very tight visit of the sun (in 2020) with its Solar Orbiter Mission. These are some of the questions ESA's Solar Orbiter shell help to answer:
On October 30, 2018 NASA retired Keppler Space Telescope. Read more here. Launched on March 6, 2009, the Kepler space telescope detected in the extremely short time of 9 years nearly 5000 exoplanets (confirmed and yet to be confirmed). Read more here. The succesor to Kepler, Tess was launched on 19 of april 2018.
And while Kepler was late by 9 years Europ's ESA wants to start in Oct/Nov. 2019 Cheops(CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) - 24 years too late. 500 stars with known exoplanet systems are sheduled to get characterized more exactly.
Copyright © R,Cooper-Bitsch 2006,2009,2010, 2018
**) The US-National Research Council : "The discovery of life on another planet is potentially one of the most important scientific advances of this century, let alone this decade, and it would have enormous philosophical implications."
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